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Elemental Trading, Part 2: External Walls

This article is the second of a three-part series discussing elemental trading in a Verification Method JV3 thermal simulation. The series discusses the effect solar absorptance, insulation and thermal mass have on the performance of the building envelope. In the first article we looked at the roof and its impact on thermal performance. This time we’ll have a closer look at the next most important surface – external walls.
Solar Absorptance on External Walls
First off, a few definitions in case your memory needs jogging about what some terms mean. Solar absorptance is a number between 0 and 1 that measures how well a material’s surface absorbs solar energy. This is primarily (but not completely) affected by the colour of the material. Different colours of the same material have different values and a lighter colour means a lower solar absorptance. For example, 0.2 is brilliant white, while 0.9 is dark brown. Actual material solar absorptance values are a little more complex as they also include the material’s absorption in the Infra-Red and Ultra-Violet spectrums, which are invisible to the naked eye. So for simplicity, we’ll be referring to the different roof colours as just their solar absorptance numbers in this article.

Thermal mass is the ability of a building material to absorb and hold onto heat energy. A rough rule of thumb is that the heavier a material is, the more thermal mass it has. High density materials (such as concrete) have a high thermal mass, whereas lightweight materials (such as wood) have lower thermal mass.

FC panel wall types are Fibre-Cement panel sheeting, also commonly known as plasterboard, drywall or Gyprock.

We used DesignBuilder to model three different locations for the JV3 simulation: Darwin, Brisbane and Melbourne. These represent hot, warm/cool and cold climates. Buildings operated at other conditions will, of course, have different results. We modelled an office building measuring 30m × 15m × 3.5m with the longest-side facing North. We investigated the building envelope (roof, external walls and suspended floor), with varying solar absorptances, insulation and thermal mass. We also compared heat transfer (kWh) against the JV3 Reference Building – which is a basic structure that meets the DTS requirements of the Code.

You can see the annual total heat transfer (kWh) for different roofs in the graphs below. A positive number means that heat is transferring into the building, while a negative number means that heat is transferring out of the building. This heat transfer must be balanced by either artificial cooling, artificial heating or heat transfer in the opposite direction from other elements. We made all the graphs have identical scales to so you can easily make comparisons between locations.

Graphs of External Wall Colour vs Building Energy Consumption

Solar absorptance on different coloured walls

Results

There’s all sorts of interesting insights we can learn from these graphs.

Solar Absorptance: If a wall isn’t insulated, colour can vary the amount of heat transfer through the walls. In hotter climates it’s better to use a lighter colour while in cooler climates, a darker colour is better. Hopefully this isn’t a surprise to you! However the optimum colour for highest benefit depends on the building’s insulation, thermal mass and the climate.
Thermal Mass: If the wall isn’t insulated, there’s a significant variation between annual aggregate heat transfer of FC panel and concrete panel. This means that a wall’s Thermal mass plays an important role. However if the wall is insulated, there’s little difference between the material used. Therefore, most of the benefits of concrete panel’s high Thermal mass is lost when it’s insulated.
Insulation: Now for something that may be surprising to you – increasing wall insulation is not always beneficial in all locations! Yes really – there are times where you can have too much insulation! Hot or cold climates benefit from some insulation to reduce heat transfer, and warm or cool climates require less insulation

As always, the optimum performance of your specific building will depend on a combination of the most suitable solar absorptance, insulation and thermal mass of each element. Every building really is different!

Reference Building and Elemental Trading

In a Deemed-to-Satisfy report, elemental trading is not possible because every separate element needs to perform the same or better than the minimum Code requirements. However, to comply with a JV3 assessment, only the Annual Energy Consumption of the proposed building as a whole needs to be less than the Reference building. This lets you trade the benefits between elements – you can choose elements which perform better than the DTS minimum requirements in one area and use that to offset other elements that are less than DTS minimum requirements. For example, it’s possible to achieve a Building Solution by trading non-compliant DTS insulation for:

  • Better than DTS-compliant glazing
  • Better than DTS surface solar absorptance
  • Better than DTS in available thermal mass

Despite having a non-DTS complying element, the proposed building can still comply with NCC Performance Requirement JP1 with a JV3 assessment if your Annual Energy Consumption is less than the Reference Building. This means a Verification Method assessment can offer substantial savings in construction costs. In our experience, we frequently find that a JV3 assessment can provide a more economical Building Solution for your project than a DTS assessment.

If you liked this article, be sure to check out Part 1 which covers roofs and Part 3 which covers external floors. And don’t forget to Subscribe to our Newsletter to be notified of future articles like these!

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